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 March 2016

 Volume 1 Issue 1

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Editorial

Tissue Stem Cell Transplantation Notice for Mycophenolate Mofetil

James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D.

I wish to notify investigators in the rapidly growing field of allogeneic tissue stem cell transplantation that a commonly used immunosuppression agent, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), may have unrecognized effects on treatment outcomes. Because of its lower toxicity compared to other immunosuppression regimen agents like methotrexate (MTX), previously MMF has been widely used for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. The therapeutic target for MMF is inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which is potently inhibited by mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of MMF.               

              

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Review Article

Enhancing the Plasticity/Stemness of Dental Stem Cells using Growth Factors, Small Molecules and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose*

Dental stem cells (DSCs) are easily obtainable mesenchymal-like stem cells from dental origin exhibiting high plasticity and multipotency. However, the DSCs have enhanced abilities to give rise to mineralized tissues like bones. Also, DSCs can differentiate into dentinogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, neurogenic and pancreatic ß cell lineages that have a possibility of a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine. Moreover, the applicability in regenerative medicine is directly correlated with the plasticity of stem cells, and biocompatibility of the scaffolds.

 

 

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 Research Article

Growth Factors and Cytokines in Head Injury Patients with Concomitant Long Bone Fractures

Fathy G. Khallaf*, Elijah O. Kehinde, Sundus Hussein, Sameh I. Al Shinawy

In this prospective controlled study, blood samples were withdrawn from 52 patients with head injury, 50 patients with head injury and associated long bone fractures, 60 patients with long bone fractures only, and 50 healthy subjects. Samples were collected: one day, three days, one week, two weeks, and three weeks after the injury and tested for growth factors Insulin growth factor- II (IGF- II); platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Activin-A transferring growth factor ß, and Cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1).

 

 

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 Research Article

Nano-Diamonds Containing Chitosan Gels as Inter-Canal Medication: From Design to Application In vitro

V. Tamara Perchyonok*, Nicolaas Basson, Rafael Felitti, Shengmia Zhang, Desigar Moodley, Sias R Grobler

In this study, we demonstrated that the newly prepared chitosan nano-diamond hydrogels are suitable novel antimicrobial drug delivery systems against Enterococcus faecalis, as well as, bio-active materials capable of efficiently counteracting potential free radical damage generated during the potential endodontic treatment in vitro. The chitosan hydrogels showed a high adhesive force and were only slightly swelled in the aqueous medium. Tetracycline release suggested prolonged release of the antibiotic from the hydrogels. All the test samples gave an average inhibition zone against Enterococcus faecalis larger than the tetracycline control disc. The hydrogels also had significant free radical defense capability.

 

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 Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Early Lineage Adult Stem Cells from the Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients

Keith D. Crawford*, Baldev Vasir, Shari Benson, Jinsoo Joo, Kathryn A. Goldman, Zaheed Husain, Farnaz Hadaegh, Thomas S. Thornhill

Adult stem cells (ASCs), which possess the ability to self-renew and regenerate tissue, are of significant value for the development of cellular therapies, tissue engineering tools, and drug screening models. Conventional protocols for ASC enrichment generate a small number of cells that do not represent the total ASC population of tissues. We avoided these conventional methodologies and used a different approach to identify early lineage adult (ELA) stem cells, a subpopulation of ASCs 4-6 µm in diameter, in the synovial fluid of osteoarthritic patients.

 

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 Research Article

Human Plasma Versus Collagen as a Dermal Scaffold for the Generation of a Completely Autologous Bioengineered Skin

Stefano Negri*, Sara Farinato, Chiara Fila, Debora Lepri, Patrizia Mondini

Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary area of research which aims to regenerate damaged tissues and organs in the human body, starting from the assumption that almost all animal tissues in the human body can be cultivated in a laboratory.The general principle is to isolate stem cells from a patient who requires a transplant and then the cells are cultured to grow and differentiate on a suitable support to produce the replacement tissue. On the one hand, it is necessary to find a suitable support (matrix or scaffold) on which cells can adhere and form stratified structures. On the other hand, the conditions allowing cells to proliferate and differentiate into the various types of tissues must be understood and reproduced.

 

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